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Disease". The long period of Brezhnev's rule had come to be dubbed one of "standstill with an aging and ossified top political leadership. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (2007) Collapse Beschloss, Michael, and Strobe Talbott. Under his new policy of glasnost openness a major cultural thaw took place: freedoms of expression and of information were significantly expanded; the press and broadcasting were allowed unprecedented candour in their reportage and criticism; and the country's legacy of Stalinist totalitarian rule was eventually. During the 1950s and 1960s, it had comparatively high growth and was catching up to the West. Soviet Foreign Policy: The Brezhnev Years (1983) Goncharov, Sergei, John Lewis and Litai Xue, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao and the Korean War (1993) excerpt and text search Gorlizki, Yoram, and Oleg Khlevniuk.

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63 Brezhnev's next two successors, transitional figures with deep roots in his tradition, did not last long. The first Bolshevik experience with a command economy was the policy of War communism, which involved the nationalization of industry, centralized distribution of output, coercive requisition of agricultural production, and attempts to eliminate money circulation, private enterprises and free trade. Retrieved Wilson, David (1983). "Impact of the Opening of Soviet Archives on Western Scholarship on Soviet Social History." Russian Review 74#3 (2015 377400; historiography Hoffmann, David. Soviet Society under Perestroika. Unification of republics On 28 December 1922, a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian sfsr, the Transcaucasian sfsr, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty on the Creation of the ussr 30 and the Declaration of the Creation of the ussr. 185 The rises in both adult and infant mortality were not explained or defended by Soviet officials, and the Soviet government simply stopped publishing all mortality statistics for ten years. The signing of the treaty, however, was interrupted by the August Coup an attempted coup d'état by hardline members of the government and the KGB who sought to reverse Gorbachev's reforms and reassert the central government's control over the republics. Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. 'On the other hand.' See the index of Stalin and His Hangmen by Donald Rayfield, 2004, Random House Rayfield 2004,. . The same year, a Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December 1922 union.

Between July 1956 and September 1991, there were 15 union republics (see map below). According to declassified Soviet archives, the nkvd arrested more than one and a half million people in 19, of whom 681,692 were shot. In the ensuing Cold War, the two sides clashed indirectly in proxy wars.

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